Osteoarthritis of the knee

Less knee pain. More life.


Take a new path – put a stop to osteoarthritis of the knee

Arthrosis is a widespread disease, with estimates indicating that millions of people worldwide are affected by this joint disease. This group includes young and athletic people, too.

Arthrosis most often develops in the knee. The diagnosis can make those affected feel uncertain. Many fear that they will always live with knee pain and that they will need to take analgesics (pain medication) to be able to move. They wonder how long they will still be able to pursue their hobbies or climb the stairs, if there is any way out of pain besides medication, or how to delay an operation?

Yes, there is! Put a stop to arthrosis. These days, there are good options for living an active life with arthrosis. In many cases, an orthotic can help reduce the pain – and help you regain your quality of life. With the help of an appropriate orthotic, surgery can often be avoided. This website will tell you what you need to know about osteoarthritis of the knee. You will also find tips and information that will help you live your life with this condition on your own terms.

Devices for osteoarthritis of the knee

If you have arthrosis, an Ottobock orthotic can help alleviate pain and reduce the strain on your knee joints.

Symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee

Osteoarthritis of the knee (or “knee OA” for short) is a degenerative condition of the knee joint. It is incurable and leads to progressive changes in the knee. In the initial stage of arthrosis, you may occasionally experience any pain or restrictions in movement. With advanced osteoarthritis of the knee, pain and discomfort can increase. Most people develop arthrosis over their lives due to wear on the joints. Risk factors such as obesity, joint malposition, lack of exercise, overloading and incorrect loading of the joints. Some types of sports or injuries accelerate joint wear and tear and can also cause arthrosis to develop in young people.

Arthrosis changes the joint

Because it’s a degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis of the knee typically starts with signs of degeneration and/or minimal damage in joint cartilage. As time passes, the cartilage surface becomes rough and uneven. The joint no longer moves smoothly. It snags and grinds. Increasing friction leads to painful inflammation in the knee, and fluid is effused into the joint capsule. In this condition, also referred to as activated arthrosis, there is constant pain. In the advanced stage of arthrosis, cartilage damage increases and all tissue involved in the joint is affected. The bones form spurs (osteophytes) to stabilize the joint but cause ankylosis, or stiffening, in the process. Knee pain occurs at increasingly shorter intervals and becomes more severe over time.

Disease progression: stages of arthrosis

  1. Grade one
    The joint cartilage has invisible signs of degeneration. It’s less elastic than healthy cartilage and can’t recover well after being subjected to strain. Initial knee pain may occur under high strain.

  2. Grade two
    The cartilage tissue becomes thinner. The cartilage surface becomes rough and uneven. The bones form initial spurs (osteophytes). The knee’s ability to bear weight is decreased. At this stage of arthrosis, the disease progression can be effectively slowed by exercises, weight loss and medical devices such as orthoses.

  3. Grade three
    The cartilage has partly disappeared so that the bones begin to rub against each other in some places. X-rays show pronounced bone spurs and narrowing of the joint space. At this advanced stage, arthrosis causes considerable restrictions of movement and knee pain.

  4. Grade four
    The joint space has narrowed considerably and the joint cartilage has almost completely disappeared. The bones are often damaged. The joint is deformed and often inflamed. In this final stage, joint replacement surgery – that is, a prosthetic knee joint – may be the best solution.


The vicious cycle of arthrosis

Patients with osteoarthritis of the knee frequently get caught in a vicious cycle:
To relieve knee pain, the affected individuals may exercise less and adopt a certain posture to avoid discomfort. However, restricting movement only provides short-term relief from pain. In the long run, a lack of exercise accelerates cartilage wear and increases pain in the knee. The vicious circle continues.
On top of this, the unnatural posture to avoid discomfort also puts excessive strain on other joints such as the hips, which can cause permanent damage.


Initial symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee

Early diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee increases chances of getting knee pain under control and slowing down the progressive changes in the knee joint.
If you experience the following symptoms on a recurring basis, you should have it examined by an orthopedist:

  • Knee pain after rest (start-up pain)

  • Knee pain after unusual exertion

  • Knee pain during certain movements

  • Knee stiffness

  • Grinding and cracking in the knee joint

  • Swelling and inflammation in the knee

Diagnosis and therapy

Diagnosis and therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee

If you have knee pain or limited knee function, you should have it examined by an orthopedist.

Diagnosing osteoarthritis of the knee

When talking to the doctor, you should give a detailed description of your knee problems and answer the physician’s questions to the best of your ability. In addition to the knee disorder, other health information such as arthroses in other joints, injuries, infections, or chronic diseases may also be relevant to knee pain. During the examination, the physician will look at the knee and check its functions. They will then take an X-ray to see if any visible changes have already developed in the joint. In some cases, further examinations will be necessary to arrive at a diagnosis.


Therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee

There are three basic treatment methods for osteoarthritis of the knee: conservative (non-invasive) therapy, invasive joint-preserving therapy and invasive joint-replacing therapy. The term invasive is used for any treatment in which the doctor makes changes to the knee joint.

Conservative (non-invasive) therapies

Conservative therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee includes all non-invasive treatments.

Conservative therapy for knee osteoarthritis can consist of:

  • Wearing supports and orthoses

  • Movement therapy

  • Special exercises

  • Mild to moderate sports activity

  • Healthy nutrition

  • Weight reduction if overweight

  • Hot and cold treatments as needed

  • Creams and gels to relieve pain

  • Analgesics and anti-inflammatory medications

Invasive joint-preserving therapies

To relieve inflammation and pain in the knee, a physician can inject medication directly into the joint. Hyaluronic acid is frequently used as an active ingredient. Hyaluronic acid occurs naturally in healthy joints. It serves as a nutrient solution for the cartilage and is a natural lubricant for the joint. Leg malpositions that lead to arthrosis can be corrected by surgically realigning the bones (corrective osteotomy).
In certain cases, an endoscopic technique is also used for joint-preserving therapy for arthrosis. This procedure is referred to as “arthroscopy” (joint endoscopy). However, because the success of arthroscopy is limited, it is no longer recommended as the sole treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee.

Invasive joint-replacing therapies

If conservative or invasive joint-preserving therapies no longer relieve pain or improve the knee function, joint-replacing therapy should be considered. During this surgical procedure, the natural joint is replaced either fully or partially by a prosthetic (endoprosthetic/prosthetic knee joint).

Pain relief

Orthotics can relieve knee pain

Knee or lower-leg-foot-braces, such as the Agilium Freestep, specifically relieve the painful areas in the knee joint and can provide sustainable relief from knee pain. This has been confirmed by studies. In many cases, orthotics can help those affected by osteoarthritis of the knee to decrease the dose or stop the use of pain. Knee or lower-leg-foot-orthotics enable patients with osteoarthritis of the knee to move around and engage in sports with almost no pain, helping to break the vicious cycle of arthrosis.

Most of my patients are very satisfied with the new orthosis. More than half of them have been able to avoid surgery so far.

Dr. Stinus
Active against arthrosis

Active against arthrosis

Osteoarthritis of the knee cannot be cured, but you can effectively alleviate pain and discomfort and significantly improve your quality of life if you actively counteract the arthrosis with conscious nutrition and appropriate exercise.


Keep the following joint healthy foods in mind as you plan your meals. Fish like mackerel, salmon and herring are rich in nutrients and Omega-3 fatty acids that curb inflammation. Spices such as turmeric, nutmeg, cinnamon and coriander add flavor and have a anti-inflammatory and decongestant effects. Chili and ginger can also help to relieve pain. It’s best to avoid processed foods with high amounts of fat and sugar and to avoid alcohol and nicotine. Consult your physician before beginning any diet, nutrition, or fitness plan.


Exercise in everyday life

Regular exercise is essential to counteract the progressive changes caused by arthrosis, maintain knee function and relieve pain. You should therefore integrate more exercise into your daily routine. Take the stairs instead of the elevator, run small errands on foot or by bike instead of using the car and relax with an evening walk rather than sitting in front of the television. At work, you can do short exercises during breaks – you’ll see that this isn’t just good for your knee, it also refreshes your mind.


Types of sports

In addition to everyday exercise, regularly engaging in certain types of sports is ideal for keeping arthrosis under control. Swimming, water aerobics, biking, or long walks can help maintain knee mobility and prevent pain. They also strengthen your leg muscles and promote your overall mobility and endurance. The most important rule is to keep moving, without overexerting yourself. Talk to your physician about sports that put strain on the knee joint due to abrupt stops, tight turns, or high pressure. Consult your physician before beginning any diet, nutrition, or fitness plan.

Agilium Move

Agilium Move: special training for osteoarthritis of the knee

Get your knee in shape: watch the Agilium Move videos featuring special exercises for balance, strength and endurance for osteoarthritis of the knee. Our Agilium Move programme is designed especially for the needs of patients with arthrosis. It will help you strengthen the muscles in your legs and around the knee joint, increase the stability of your knee joints and become more mobile as a result. Join Christian Neureuther, a former professional skier, and get moving with Agilium Move!

Please note: Your health is important to us. Please take care not to overexert yourself. If in doubt, consult your doctor or physiotherapist.

Balance exercises

In our Agilium Move balance exercises, former professional skier Christian Neureuther shows you how to specifically train your quadriceps and the muscles that control the knee joint. The exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee will improve your proprioception (self-awareness) of your knee. This, in turn, will improve the interplay between the dynamic muscles and the stabilizing muscles used in different movement patterns.

Strength exercises

Osteoarthritis of the knee leads to imbalance, not only in the cartilage in your knee but also in the surrounding muscle tissue. Strong muscles provide stability for the bony structures in the joint. If you have osteoarthritis of the knee, you should focus on exercises that strengthen the thigh muscles. You can use the Agilium Move strength exercises to actively stimulate metabolic processes in the joint to help maintain existing cartilage.

Endurance exercises

The Agilium Move endurance exercise focuses on getting the entire body moving, without placing too much strain on it. As with swimming or cycling, you should try to keep moving for as long as possible. This will stimulate the supply of nutrients to your joints, which also helps maintain the cartilage. If you complete the exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee on a regular basis, you will gradually be able to walk without pain for progressively longer distances.


Frequently asked questions about osteoarthritis of the knee

What is arthrosis?

What is arthrosis

Arthrosis is a degenerative joint disease that is very common: around 12 million people are affected in Germany alone, and around 60 per cent of them have arthrosis of the knee (also referred to as osteoarthritis of the knee). Arthrosis can be caused by excessive strain, misalignment or injury to one or more joints. Mechanical stress that is excessive or inappropriate wears down the cartilage in the joint, resulting in progressive damage to the joint. It’s important to make a distinction between this primary arthrosis and secondary arthrosis, which occurs as a result of other diseases such as joint inflammation (arthritis).

Can I do anything during the early stages of arthrosis to prevent the disease from progressing?

Can I do anything during the early stages of arthrosis to prevent the disease from progressing?

Arthrosis is a joint disorder that often becomes worse over the course of a lifetime. To slow down the progression of the disease, try to maintain healthy weight, avoid alcohol and nicotine, and try not to put excessive strain on the affected joints. Movement, special arthrosis exercises, and healthy nutrition should be part of everyday life for people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Cycling and swimming, for example, are accessible activities for most people and are easy on your joints. In addition, make sure to wear shoes with flexible soles or shock-absorbing insoles while walking.

Can arthrosis be completely cured?

Can arthrosis be completely cured?

Once cartilage has worn down, it is impossible for it to regenerate naturally. This means arthrosis cannot be cured completely. Joint wear develops progressively and is irreversible. However, you can slow down the progression of the disease by leading a healthy lifestyle. Make sure you get enough physical exercise and avoid activities that might damage your cartilage or place excessive strain on your joints for an extended period of time.

What are the treatment options for arthrosis?

What are the treatment options for arthrosis?

In therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee, a distinction is made between (I) conservative (non-invasive) therapies (II) invasive joint-preserving therapies and (III) invasive joint-replacing therapies.

All joint-preserving therapies aim to avoid knee surgery and the use of a prosthetic knee joint, and to reduce symptoms and pain. Treatment options include physical therapy and orthopedic devices. Orthoses can relieve knee pain to a certain extent. People who wear orthoses are less likely to use pain medication. Please consult your physician to find the best possible course of treatment for your arthrosis.

How do I find an orthosis that’s right for me if I have arthrosis?

How do I find an orthosis that’s right for me if I have arthrosis?

A physician or an O&P professional can advise you in making the right choice of orthosis for your affected joint.

Should I expect side effects if I wear an orthosis?

Should I expect side effects if I wear an orthosis?

As is the case with many medical devices, orthoses can have minor side effects which may result in result in skin irritation. To avoid this, you should discuss the use of an orthosis with your doctor and ensure that the product is tailored precisely to your needs. Besides a good fit, taking proper care of the orthosis and using it correctly play an important role. This will help to keep skin reactions or similar symptoms to a minimum.

Can an orthosis be an alternative to taking analgesics?

Can an orthosis be an alternative to taking analgesics?

Orthoses can reduce the pain caused by arthrosis and improve your mobility. Orthoses also support and stabilize your knee joint and reduce pressure on the joint cartilage. This can lead to a reduction in pain which can reduce the need for.

If I wear an orthosis, will I still need to change my nutrition or do exercises to increase my mobility?

If I wear an orthosis, will I still need to change my nutrition or do exercises to increase my mobility?

Speak with your physician before starting any fitness or diet plan. Proper exercise and nutrition can help alleviate symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. An orthosis is a useful addition to these two measures. Together, they can help alleviate pain and potentially delay the need for surgery.

Back to everyday activities: three steps to an Ottobock orthosis

  1. Here you’ll find an overview of all the orthoses and supports that could potentially help you. Take the list with you to your next doctor’s appointment.
  2. Talk to your doctor about which orthotic device is best suited for your symptoms and condition. Your doctor can then write you a prescription for the appropriate orthosis.
  3. Take your prescription to an O&P professional. They’ll give you your new orthosis and adjust it to fit your exact body measurements.

Effectiveness proven by studies

Gentle treatment options like changes in nutrition, exercise and the use of orthoses can help break the vicious circle of arthrosis. Clinical and biomechanical studies show significant, clinically relevant effects. See for yourself!


Our products for osteoarthritis of the knee

Thanks to the Agilium line of products, many satisfied patients have been able to resume their regular everyday activities. Learn more about the individual orthoses and how they help people with osteoarthritis of the knee.